The Flame

Flashbacks and double crosses, love triangles and scheming women, blackmail, obsession and murder. Add in some moody and expressive visuals as well as the type of rich-looking set design a studio like 20th Century Fox would have been proud of and it sounds like The Flame (1947) has all the ingredients necessary for a top film noir, yet it doesn’t entirely hit the mark. That said, it’s not a bad movie and I think there’s actually quite a lot to enjoy over its 90 minute running time. Basically, it’s one of those odd cinematic creatures, a movie I get on with well enough but just wish I were able to like a little more; it has what can be summed up in that vaguely dreadful word, potential.

We come in high, skimming the urban skyline, and then swooping down to street level to focus on one man on that thoroughfare. He looks thoughtful as he pauses at the entrance to a swank looking apartment building. Passing in and up again, up through the splendor of its striking interior design, he moves along a corridor whose unique skylights are suggestive of a watchful eye from above, along to the grand door at the far end. Beyond those doors lies violence, for no sooner has the figure entered than shots are heard ringing out with a shocking abruptness, not least the last one. In a very real sense, this is an opening to die for. Sure, in terms of structure, it’s not quite as bleakly audacious as the tale told by a dead man in Sunset Boulevard, but it’s a close relative of sorts. When George MacAllister (John Carroll) arrives back at his apartment with a bullet hole in his back there’s a fatalism on display as he sits down to peruse the letter which will lead the viewer into the long flashback making up the body of the movie.

The letter in question is a long epistle from Carlotta Duval (Vera Ralston) detailing the tangled circumstances that led to a killing, how George MacAllister’s egoistic wastrel let his greed and his jealousy of his brother take hold of him, how that brother (Robert Paige) found a reason to live and how the writer herself became entrapped in a kind of ethical maze where every turn appears barred by thorns of her own manufacture. A plot to exploit an apparently ailing man evolves from double to triple cross, and threatens to become even more complicated with arrival on the scene of a disgruntled and lovestruck heavy (Broderick Crawford) and the subject of his passion (Constance Dowling). By the time we reach the end of the road the plot has twisted and turned around to such an extent that one of the characters performs a complete volte-face. The entire movie has a heightened sense of spirituality about it, alluded to via some of the early visual motifs and then made wholly explicit by a moment of enlightenment sequence at the mid-point. If that “road to Damascus moment” does lack a certain subtlety, the thinking behind it and the redemptive path it lays out for some of the characters is not in itself unwelcome.

The Flame was directed by John H Auer, a filmmaker whose work I’ve not seen all that much of. One movie by Auer that I am familiar with is Hell’s Half Acre, and it’s another which I think doesn’t quite deliver as much as it initially promises. It looks fine throughout, with Auer framing some very attractive compositions and cinematographer Reggie Lanning (Wake of the Red Witch) lighting them effectively. However, it all drifts somewhat in the middle, with the pace and energy fading and flagging. Now that’s not uncommon and lots of movies can be said to suffer from a similar soft center without it becoming all that noticeable. Perhaps part of the problem is the absence of a genuinely commanding presence among the leads.

In the three principal roles, Vera Ralston, John Carroll and Robert Paige are all adequate but that’s about it, and the movie could have used more dynamism in at least one of those parts. It’s long been fashionable to take shots at Ralston due to Herbert Yates’ insistence on her being the leading lady in picture after picture. She is certainly limited but her work isn’t poor, just not especially memorable. Robert Paige was tasked with playing a man of great kindness and understanding, and again while he’s not bad in the role I did find myself wondering whether there was enough in the characterization to melt a hardened heart in the way he’s supposed to do. And something similar can be said for John Carroll, where it’s debatable that he gets across the meanness, the duplicity and the manipulative nature his role demands.

On the other hand, the supporting parts are much more interesting: Broderick Crawford does have an aura of menace about him despite the hangdog bulkiness and the movie gets a lift every time he appears. Then Constance Dowling really raises the temperature when she is on screen, which isn’t anywhere near as often as one might wish. Her opening nightclub number is remarkable and full of raw sensuality, and her subsequent scenes allowed her to put across her coy, kittenish and waspish sides in succession. Beside those two, there are welcome turns from Henry Travers, Blanche Yurka, Hattie McDaniel and, giving a rather touching performance, Victor Sen Yung.

To the best of my knowledge, The Flame has never had a commercial release but it is easy enough to view online, and with very good picture quality too. It’s a solid film noir, with all the trappings and tropes of the genre or, if you  prefer, the style intact. Personally, I enjoyed the redemptive aspect of the yarn, even if the handling of the spiritual conversion is a touch clumsy and bordering on jejune. That along with the essentially anonymous work of the three leads drag it down some, although the stylish visuals and the supporting cast do add balance. So, a pretty good and enjoyable movie that could have been very good with just a few tweaks here and there.


This an entry in the Classic Movie Blog Association’s Hidden Classics blogathon. Click here for the full list of participants and their contributions.

80 thoughts on “The Flame

  1. Those visuals in the screenshots look pretty damn spectacular. This is one I’ll have to look out for online, then. Its curious that so many noir, even though they are usually b-pictures, can look so arresting and be shot with such creativity, while due to their budgets are hampered by sometimes mediocre acting talent within those images. Its like there’s this tension running throughout, which is perfect for noir I guess because it can leave the audience on edge somewhat without really understanding why. I am often irritated by a lovely atmospheric shot being fractured by a clunky performance of a line from someone who’d either be better working as a plumber or a trophy wife of a film exec.

    Like

    • To be fair, this isn’t what I’d categorize as a B movie as Republic clearly spent money on the production, and it does show in the set decoration, art direction and overall ambience.
      I don’t think any of the three leads can be said to do badly in their roles. They are, as I said, adequate. However, I feel the movie would have benefited greatly from a stronger presence among that trio.

      Like

  2. I had never heard of this one until now Colin. Great choice. I’m a big fan of Auer’s CITY THAT NEVER SLEEPS and I love your screenshots – definitely watching this one online! Thanks mate.

    Like

  3. I think you really hit the nail on the head in your look at this. It is a bit overlong and the centre does get turgid (and that organ really grinds). The double narration strategy is weird but it plays fair as a narrative even as the plot gets dafter and dafter (let’s face it, Barry would have understood if everyone confessed to him). More charismatic leads would have been nice (I think Carroll is actually very persuasive though Zachary Scott would have been way sexier). But it looks great at all times, Sen Yung’s big scenes are really fine, the support sizzles and as Noir-like melodramas go, there really is a lot to enjoy. Definitely a B +

    Like

    • John Carroll had a much better career than Zachary Scott, and made a lot of money. An aside. In a celebrity of tournament in which the caddies were aspiring actresses, Carroll drew Marilyn Monroe, and in the course of the day, his heart went out, doing tricks to stay alive, and struggling from childhood. His wife Lucille was head of casting at MGM and brought her to L. B. Mayer’s attention. Mr. Mayer did not like her at all, so the Carroll’s gave her an apartment plus $100.00 a week, which is more like $15000 in current value and then encouraged John Huston, who owed them money, a bill incurred when he was unable to pay for stabling his horses, and the Carroll’s owned the stable, to screen test her, a second time for asphalt Jungle. The initial test left everyone cold, but the second made film history and got her a short-term deal at Metro.

      Liked by 1 person

  4. Interesting how the poster promotes this as “A Double Life . . .” Were they trying to ride the coattails of the more prominent Kanin-Cukor film of that title (also 1947)?

    Like

    • It is an entertaining movie and deserves to b checked out. On Crawford, while he’s rarely an actor whose presence would draw me I’m happy to acknowledge he could be excellent in the right kind of roles. And he is well cast here.

      Like

  5. Colin
    Nicely said. I need to dig this out for a re-do as it has been quite awhile since last seen.. As for John Carroll, I always liked him, whether as a good guy or a black hat type. As for Vera Ralston, she seems to always be, well, forgettable. Her parts never seem to stick in the memory at all. Not being nasty or anything, it is just my take on her talent.
    Again, nice job.

    Gord.

    Like

      • Quote Colin…..”I can’t recall seeing John Carroll in anything else apart from Decision at Sundown….”.

        Colin, that kind of blew me away. Where and when I was growing up (Southern California 50’s and 60’s), John Carroll was by no means a household name. However, when his name did emerge in conversation one quickly thought of his co-starring role with John Wayne in FLYING TIGERS. Flying Tigers was shown on local TV a number of times throughout the year for those two decades. It would have been near impossible to miss it. Just goes to show ya how much regional distribution played a part in viewing opportunities. We had four local channels churning out old movies on a daily basis. Consequently, I credit much to my learning of history because of these golden age classic movies. Regarding Carroll’s performance, I felt this was one of his better outings. His delivery of dialogue mirrored Fred MacMurray to me.

        As for Vera Ralston, aka Vera Hruba Ralston, she would pop up quite often with John Wayne and Wild Bill Elliott. She was always kind of an enigma to me. No matter how they would cast her, she just seemed out of place. Marlene Dietrich she was not. But, I must say her performance in FLAME better fit her low key angelic persona and she looked stunning in those white wardrobes. This is the best I had ever seen her.

        Okay…..about Robert Paige. I have never cared too much for him. But, to his credit I thought he performed well. To make it easier for me to appreciate his performance the close-up shots provided more of a likeness to John Payne instead of the Gomer and Gober look of Mayberry RFD. Just my opinion of course.

        Can’t forget Broderick Crawford. The guy always seems to be in fine form. His appearances were a big plus. Perfectly cast.

        Oh….about the movie. I liked it mainly because of the high production values and how they were put to very good use. I especially found pleasure in the eye candy of Vera Ralston.

        Like

        • Yes, one’s location does appear to play a part in whether certain movies, and therefore perhaps certain stars too, feel more familiar than others. Robert Paige is someone I’ve seen more of, but I can’t say he made much of an impression on me.

          Like

  6. Colin
    He does a nice turn with John Wayne as a pilot in FLYING TIGERS for one. He was in RIO RITA with Abbott and Costello which has a couple of chuckles. A pal with fellow party giver Errol Flynn.
    Gord

    Liked by 1 person

      • The perfect opportunity, Colin, for your discovery of popular (at the time) western star Bill Elliott. His 1947 Republic Trucolor film “THE FABULOUS TEXAN” co-starred John Carroll and, in fact, it was almost more Carroll’s film than Elliott’s, despite the cast order.
        I think our mate, John Knight, would join me in wanting to bring the film to your attention.

        Liked by 1 person

  7. This weekend’s film is, CAMPBELL’S KINGDOM 1957. Cast includes Dirk Bogarde, J.R. Justice and Stanley Baker. Based on the Hammond Innes book of the same name. A outdoors adventure type set in Alberta, Canada, during the oil boom of the late 1940s. Read the book while in high school, so interested in what the Ralph Thomas helmed film looks like.

    Gord

    Like

    • I have read many of Hammond Innes novels but not “Campbell’s Kingdom” (yet). I rather like the film of it. Dirk Bogarde was at the height of his popularity here and I am rarely (ever?) disappointed by a Stanley Baker appearance. Tell us what you thought, Gord?

      Like

  8. A very interesting review and an oddball choice,if I may say so; furthermore, I personally like some of the actors better than you do. Probably being the only Robert Paige admirer on the Planet, I am especially fond of his work in several good B Noirs like PAROLE FIXER, WOMEN WITHOUT NAMES and the later BLONDE ICE.
    Good to see some love for John Carroll; in fact he did three A Westerns with William Elliott, one where they were buddies, one where he played the heavy and in the very fine THE FABULOUS TEXAN Carroll takes center stage and despite being top billed Elliott’s role is more secondary. Interestingly, Carroll even came over to the UK for a Tempean Film, the romantic comedy (a change for them certainly) THE RELUCTANT BRIDE.
    Speaking of Tempean (and in fact director Henry Cass) Glenn Erickson has just reviewed the French release of BLOOD OF THE VAMPIRE. a gleefully ghoulish romp I am very fond of. I will not be getting the French import which seems top heavy with extras all in French, but it’s nice to know a watchable version of this film now seems to exist.
    Broderick Crawford never ceases to amaze me I’ve recently caught up with CONVICTED and THE MOB courtesy of Indicator’s Noir sets. Both films have Crawford at the top of his game and as such are well recommended.

    Like

    • John, it’s a movie I came across by chance and I started watching it without any conscious plans to feature it here. I got drawn in mainly by the lush visuals and high production values, but the story intrigued me too.
      As for Crawford, I find my feelings shift according to his suitability for the role he’s playing – he’s pretty good in this.

      Like

  9. John, Colin
    For me, Crawford is one of those actors that constantly fools me. He starts out as Joe Anybody, but as the film plays out, he slowly starts to come across like a lion on the prowl. As a good guy, he always has a hard edge, but he truly shines as a villain. I think he is undervalued by many, particularly for his work in film noirs.

    My 3 cents (inflation) on the subject.

    Gordon

    Like

    • A reasonable summation there. I recall thinking he was fine in Lang’s Human Desire, although it’s been an age since I saw that and I really need to get back to it.
      Incidentally, there will be some Fritz Lang featured here very soon, possibly next Tuesday.

      Like

  10. Now speaking of Robert Paige. Last night I re-watched TANGIER, a 1946 UNIVERSAL low ender. This one is like a small time version of “Casablanca.” The usual suspects, Nazis, con men, stolen diamonds, spies, etc fill out the dance card here. The cast is Robert Paige as a newspaperman. Sabu is a local guide, Maria Montez is a dancer at the club looking to even the score with a Gestapo type, Preston Foster. Lois Allbritton, Kent Taylor, J. Edward Blomberg and Reginald Denny fill out the cast. Needless to say various murders, beatings move things along at an acceptable pace. .

    While not a world beater by any means, the film does has a very nice look to it, supplied by cinematographer, Woody Bredell. Bredell, one of the best noir D of Ps also shot, PHANTOM LADY, LADY ON A TRAIN, CHRISTMAS HOLIDAY, SMOOTH AS SILK, THE FEMALE JUNGLE, THE UNSUSPECTED and of course THE KILLERS.

    I have a full review that I wrote in 2010 up on IMDB

    It seems to be one of the Maria Montez films that most have missed.

    Gord

    Like

    • I like your thinking on Tangier, Gord, but what makes you call it a low-ender? The cast alone brings the budget up quite a bit.

      Like

    • RE: TANGIER……
      Quote Gord……”It seems to be one of the Maria Montez films that most have missed.”

      I would say……..It seems to be one of the Maria Montez films that is most forgettable. It’s not a bad movie, but with all it’s twist and turns, it came off a bit too disjointing at times. Preston Foster who was probably the most accomplished actor in the cast just didn’t belong there. Also, when one is accustomed to seeing a Technicolor film with Montez, Jon Hall, Sabu and a Turhan Bey thrown in the mix and instead we get a whole different set of actors for whom the initial screenplay was written around it’s like WTH. Initially, the movie was to co-star Montez, Hall and Bey. Sabu was serving in the armed forces after COBRA WOMAN (1944) and was thought to be unavailable. As it turned out, Hall and Bey were now serving, but Sabu had just been discharged prior to filming. Henceforth, Sabu was written in and given co-star billing status with Montez and now Paige. As it turned out, Sabu had very little to do with anything of consequence beyond a few scenes interjected into the screenplay. However, he did sing a couple of American ballads that were noteworthy. I do wonder how much of the initial script was changed without the presence of Hall and Bey and the addition of Sabu. In my opinion, ARABIAN NIGHTS (1942), WHITE SAVAGE (1943) and COBRA WOMAN (1944) cemented the chemistry of the Hall/Montez/Sabu trio during the war years.

      About films most missed by Maria Montez. I was very impressed with Montez in SIREN OF ATLANTIS (1949). Here she is at her most alluring and not to be missed. Also, right after “Atlantis” was “Wicked City” where she is in top sultry form.

      Liked by 1 person

      • Scott
        It was filmed in 43 but kept on the selves till 46. The whole film was rushed through production because Montez was pregnant at the time.

        Gordon

        Like

        • Hi Gord…,,,

          Got to disagree with you mate. In summation……according to Wikipedia the initial script by Alice Miller was accepted by Universal for production in September 1943. It was then shelved due to political considerations. In March 1945, production was re-activated and the script was re-written. On 24 September 1945, filming started. Below is you a few excepts from Wikipedia………….

          PRODUCTION

          Development
          Maria Montez became famous in the 1940s appearing in a series of movies at Universal set in exotic locales and filmed in color alongside Jon Hall and Sabu, such as Arabian Nights, White Savage and Cobra Woman. In September 1943 Universal announced they would make Flame of Stamboul, from a script by Alice Miller, to star Montez, Hall and Turhan Bey, who was to play the role meant for Sabu because Sabu had gone into the army. Paul Malvern was to produce and the film was meant to be shot in color.

          Miller’s script was set in Turkey, which was neutral for most of World War II. However this was ultimately felt to be too problematic politically – in particular Universal were worried about upsetting the Turkish government – and filming was postponed.

          In March 1945 the project was re-activated as Tangier. Steve Fisher was hired to rewrite the script. The film was relocated to Tangiers and the villains were turned into agents from Franco’s Spain. Then this was changed to they were from a non specific nationality.

          Shooting
          Filming started on 24 September 1945. By this stage Turhan Bey and Jon Hall had gone into the army so their roles were played by Sabu and Robert Paige respectively. It was Sabu’s first movie on his return from the services.

          Montez was pregnant during filming.

          Like

          • Scott
            I stand corrected. My info would appear to be faulty. Thanks for your new info. One of the reasons I like RTHC is this kind of info.
            Gord

            Like

            • Ah…….I see where you got your info. Personally, I much prefer Wikipedia for production info. I find it’s usually much more detailed than the other commonly used source. If you’ve been following some of my past posts you can tell I can go a bit overboard with anything stemming from Jon Hall. You may ask why Jon Hall? He was my childhood hero during the RAMAR OF THE JUNGLE television series (52′-53′). That interest in Hall got me started in this whole classic movie stuff long before the internet. As far as RTHC is concerned, it’s been part of my daily life since my discovery of it. Thanks be to COLIN.

              Like

                  • Scott
                    Off the top of my head I would say my favs are THE INVISIBLE AGENT, SOUTH OF PAGO PAGO, ALI BABA AND THE FORTY THIEVES, and KIT CARSON. I’m sure I missed something.
                    Gord

                    Like

                    • Gord……..my top 7 starting with my favorite are The Hurricane (’37), Kit Carson (’40), White Savage (’43), Cobra Woman (’44), The Tuttles of Tahiti (’42), South of Pago Pago (’40) and Arabian Nights (’42).

                      Side note – What really annoys me is that in September of 1938, The New York Times had reported that Samuel Goldwyn had agreed to loan Jon Hall to Alexander Korda who wanted Hall for the lead part of Ahmad in “The Thief of Bagdad”. The picture was to be made in color and would co-feature Sabu. The deal was so definite that Korda gave Hall 1,000 dollars to buy a new wardrobe. Hall got the clothes, but Goldwyn stepped in and stopped the deal because of a bitter row that slit Korda and Goldwyn over the United Artists’ sale. So once again after waiting nearly two years after finding stardom in “The Hurricane”, Hall found himself a victim of studio squabbles. Story has it that Korda was never really happy with John Justin who eventually got the role. It’s too bad, IMHO Hall would have exhibited a much stronger onscreen presence and better fit alongside Sabu and June Duprez, thus revitalizing his career aspirations.

                      Sources – NY Times September 1, 1938 and “A FORGOTTEN MAN”. The Sydney Morning Herald. 23 November 1939

                      Liked by 1 person

  11. All
    Has anybody seen 1962s YOUNG GUNS OF TEXAS? This one seems to star a a whole slew of offspring of famous western actors. We have, James Mitchum, son of Robert, Jody McCrea, son of Joel, Alana Ladd, daughter of Alan and Will Wills, son of Chill. Never heard of this one till I stumbled upon it on during my nightly You-Tube wanderings.

    Gord

    Like

    • I’ve seen it, Colin and Gord, and it is passable. Be interested to get your take on it, Gord.
      Talking of Alana Ladd – when my daughter had her second girl 5 years ago she and our son-in-law decided on the name Alana. I naturally said ‘oh that’s nice; that is what film star Alan Ladd named his daughter’. To which they both turned to me and said “Who the devil is Alan Ladd??” Oh well………

      Liked by 1 person

  12. Well folks, what is up for your viewing pleasure this weekend?
    I will be starting with the Japanese Yakuza film from 1963 called, YOUTH OF THE BEAST. Then it is on to 1951s I WANT YOU with Dana Andrews and Farley Granger. I’ll finish off with a JOHNNY RINGO western series. episode or two.

    Have a good weekend all.
    Gord

    Like

  13. Seem to be having trouble posting this one. This is my third try.

    Well folks, what is up for your weekend viewing?
    I am starting with the 1963 Japanese Yakuza film YOUTH OF THE BEAST. Then I WANT YOU from 1951 starring Dana Andrews and Farley Granger. Them several episodes of the western series, JOHNNY RINGO.

    Have a great weekend all.
    Gord

    Like

  14. THE FLAME has for decades only been available to watch, as with so many lesser-known Republic pictures, in the form abject grey market copies. The sudden appearance of a beautiful 1080p download has made this picture ripe for appraisal and a rather excellent watch it has proved to be. I can’t really better Colin’s synopsis or insights into the movie but it’s great to see a Republic Noir given some love. John H. Auer is an interesting director. Evidently a former Hungarian child star who drifted into Hollywood in the Thirties who was able to find work behind the camera. CITY THAT NEVER SLEEPS and HELL’S HALF ACRE have already been mentioned but other pictures that he directed (and also produced) for Republic are also well worth seeing. ANGEL ON THE AMAZON features the ubiquitous Vera Ralston as a B-Movie jungle goddess in a surprisingly affecting Rider-Haggard rip off and in I,JANE DOE Vera plays an estranged war-bride seeking revenge on a callous husband. Ralston is pretty good in both pictures. Unfortunately she is just rather limited. Auer also gave us the closest thing there is to a John Wayne Noir when in A MAN BETRAYED Wayne’s small town attorney descends into The Inferno ( a sleazy big city night spot in this case) to hunt for the killers of a close pal. No Vera Ralston in this one but a more than adequate leading lady in the form of beautiful Frances Dee. Concluding with more love for Vera Ralston – I recently saw her in a hi-def rip of 1944’s STORM OVER LISBON. A kind of poor man’s CASABLANCA, which again I had only struggled through previously as a blurred grey market DVD. And once again she was really pretty good… but definitely no Ingrid Bergman.

    Like

    • I’ve only ever read dismissive comments about it – it earned a piffling one and a half stars at Blu-ray.com, although some of the reviews there are more than a little eccentric at the best of times – but I mean to catch up with A Man Betrayed at some point.

      Like

  15. There’s a small error in my screed above: I referred to WHILE THE CITY SLEEPS (directed by Fritz Lang) as having been directed by Auer whereas the picture I actually meant to mention was 1953’s CITY THAT NEVER SLEEPS.

    Like

  16. Certainly an interesting film, with a wonderful opening shot. Did they cheat regarding the gunshot wound? Carroll turns his back to the camera several times, but I never saw the hole until he gets home and dismisses his servant. Lots of visual and musical emphasis at this point. He certainly has an odd initial reaction to the shot. And for the second time he neglects to check his work. Of course it’s possible for a small-caliber weapon to deliver a minor wound, but still . . .

    I’m reminded of some TV movie with a similar device. Two female frenemies confront each other. One turns to leave (toward the camera) and then straightens up, shot in the back with a small weapon. When she turns around, she receives the fatal shot face to face. It’s an oddly chilling moment.

    Like

  17. Apropos of the “Double Life” comment above, it turns out that the two films opened in New York on the very same day: 20 Feb. 1948. One at the “Gotham” theater and the Oscar-winning Cukor film at the Music Hall. How common was it for one year’s releases not to hit NYC until the following year? And which Gotham? There were several of that name on 125th Street, 138th Street, and in Times Square. Anyway, I could not have attended that day. I was downtown at St. Vincent’s, busy being born.

    Liked by 2 people

  18. Coming up on TCM here is a slew of female J.D. films like, HIGH SCHOOL HELLCATS 58 with Yvonne Lime, Brett Halsey – DAIRY OF A HIGH SCHOOL BRIDE 59 with Anita Sands, Ron Foster – RIOT IN JUVENILE PRISON 59 with Jerome Thor, Marcia Henderson, Scott Marlowe – SO YOUNG SO BAD 50 with Paul Henreid, Kate McLeod – SO EVIL SO YOUNG 61 with, Jill Ireland and Ellen Pollock,

    Some of these are a hoot
    Gord

    Like

  19. Pingback: The Flame – Like world

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.